Karl Marx sees history as progressive history as well as adopting Hegel teleological view. Like Hegel, Marx was of the view that History was a necessary process heading towards discoverable goals. Hegel goal was liberation of the mind and therefore Karl Marx replaced liberation of the mind (Geist) with the liberation of real human beings. Liberation according to Marx occurred through the development of human productive forces whereby human beings free themselves from the oppression of nature and then create their own plans. In the 1844 Manuscripts, Marx, 1975b expresses `the riddle of history solved, and it knows itself to be this solution.’ Therefore communism to him is the teleological end of history.

Karl Marx in the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 expresses that there is an end to history (Marx, 1975b). The end is understood within history as communism. Marx views communism representing the coming together of all the diverse components of human historical development. So he sees communism as a real movement which abolishes the present state of affairs (Marx, 1975b). He sees the pattern of history dictated by a necessary process internal to economic development and human society and that individuals and social purposes are structured by the economic needs. In the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts, Marx claims that “communism is the necessary pattern; however the end of the capitalist era and the transition to communism does not represent the end of history, but human freedom is the inner objective of history.  So Marx equated the end of history with economic freedom where exploitation of man by another man will come to an end.

Another interpretation on the end of history is that the productive powers can go on increasing indefinitely without an end. The inclination of history is not to attain some finality e.g., classless society, history inclination is open-ended expansion of societies powers of production (Wood, 2004). However the idea that class divisions will finally be overcome in a future communist society can be interpreted to imply that there is a finite end to history. The end of communism as an end of History will also mark the beginning of a new era. It will mark the beginning of a new era which will be made possible by overcoming alienation and the pursuit of intentionally chosen historical ends will become a possibility for mankind.


Marx K., (1975b). “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844.” Pp. 279-400, Early Writings. Harmondsworth: Penguin.