Francis Fukuyuma wrote an article on the End of History in 1989 during the collapse of the Socialist regime which was represented by the pulling down of the Berlin Wall. He declared the ultimate victory of liberal democracy and argued that “it may constitute the end point of mankind’s ideological evolution and the final form of human government and as such constitute the end of history.”  In the article, liberal states are portrayed as more stable and more peaceful above all other ideologies. Fukuyama makes references to Marx, Kojeve and Hegel on his concept on the end of history. According to him the concept was first used by Hegel where history is a dialectical process while Marx believed that historical development was a purposeful one and would come to an end with the achievement of a communist Utopia that would finally resolve all prior contradictions. Fukuyuma also borrows from Kojeve and makes reference to his work on universal homogeneous state where all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs are satisfied (Fukuyama, 1992). So contradiction of human history will come to an end with an end of history.

Fukuyuma (1992) is of the view that earlier challenges were fascism and communism and fascism was destroyed during World War II while class issues propagated by Marx came to an end when class issues were resolved in the West. So the West to him reached liberalism but he notes that the end of history cannot be achieved throughout the world because contradictions still persist in various countries and also there are also emerging challenges. Fukuyama explains on the end of history as the evolution which leads to a kind of civilization, what he terms as the last civilization that humankind will ever achieve, a civilization fit to human and the right one. To him liberal democracy is the last civilization that fits human nature as compared to communism which was undermined and rejected as a form of government. So according to Fukuyama, at the end of history everybody would have satisfied all their needs and therefore nobody would have to risk their lives in battles.


Fukuyama, F (1992). The End of History and The Last Man, New York, The Free Press.